Sunday, August 23, 2020

Analysis of the immigration problem :: essays research papers

Investigation of the Immigration Problem The world has experienced an upheaval and it has changed a part. We have cut the demise rates the world over with present day medication what's more, new cultivating strategies. For instance, we showered to obliterate mosquitoes in Sri Lanka during the 1950s. In one year, the normal existence of everybody in Sri Lanka was reached out by eight years on the grounds that the quantity of individuals biting the dust from jungle fever unexpectedly declined. This was an extraordinary human accomplishment. Be that as it may, we cut the passing rate without cutting the birth rate. Presently populace is taking off. There were around one billion individuals living on the planet when the Statue of Freedom was fabricated. There are 4.5 billion today. Total populace is developing at a colossal rate. The world is going to include a billion individuals in the following eleven years, that is 224,000 consistently! Specialists state there will be in any event 1.65 billion additional individuals living on the planet in the following twenty years. We should comprehend what these numbers mean for the U.S. We should take a gander at the subject of employments. The International Labor association ventures a twenty-year increment of 600 to 700 million individuals who will be looking for occupations. Eighty-eight percent of the total populace development happens in the Third World. In excess of a billion people today are paid around 150 dollars every year, which is not exactly the normal American procures in seven days. Furthermore, developing quantities of these inadequately paid Third World residents need to go to the United States. During the 1970s, every other nation that acknowledge migrants begun controlling the quantity of individuals they would permit into their nations. The United States didn't. This implies the gigantic numbers of workers who are turned down somewhere else will go to the United States. The quantity of workers is faltering. The human affliction they speak to is a bad dream. Latin America's populace is currently 390 million individuals. It will be 800 million in the year 2025. Mexico's populace has significantly increased since the Second World War. 33% of the populace of Mexico is under ten years old, therefore, in just ten years, Mexico's joblessness rate will expand 30 percent, as these kids become youthful grown-ups, looking for work. There were in 1990 an expected 4,000,000 foreigners in the United States, what's more, around 55 percent of them were from Mexico. These individuals look to the United States.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Stonewall Case study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Stonewall - Case Study Example (b) Economic variables: The monetary components involve loan fees, tax assessment changes, financial development, swelling and trade rates. It can affect business in various manners, for example the higher loan fees may demoralize speculation since it costs more to get. (c)Inflation: It might offer ascent to more significant compensation requests from representatives and furthermore raise the expenses, for example higher national salary development may help interest for an association's items. (d)Social factors: Changes in social patterns can affect the interest for an association's items and the ability of people to work. In the event that we state that populace of Canada is maturing, at that point we will likewise consider that progressively mature age homes would be required, which thusly would require development material. (e)Technological factor: New advances make new items and new procedures. It is likewise equipped for decreasing expenses and improving quality and it additiona lly prompts development. These advancements can profit buyers just as the associations giving the items. 4. Recognize and clarify the different methods for determining work gracefully and work request. What would organizations be able to do in the short run when they perceive a hole where flexibly far surpasses request? What could Stonewall do in this circumstance? The procedures that can be utilized for estimating work requests are pattern investigation and the board conjecture. (a) Trend investigation: in which work necessities are guage based on some authoritative file. (b)Management estimate: are the assessments of specialists, bosses and some of the time the talented work also, with respect to the authoritative work gauge. The flexibly of work can be determined by various procedures including staffing tables, Markov examination, and... Stonewall Company ought to investigate options preceding creation its scaling back choice. One approach to do so is by representative exchange to either inside company’s sponsorships, or to different organizations. Afterward, in the event that presentation of moved representatives stays stale, at that point cutbacks with appropriate thinking will be the main way out. Data with respect to scaling down ought to be given to the workers as it isn't just an employee’s option to think about it in any event 3 months before cutback, however it is likewise establishes the company’s preeminent obligation to its representatives. Stonewall Company ought to settle on scaling back the Montreal plant. The thinking behind it is that the Quebec is moderately little area when contrasted with others. In the event that now and again, more supplies are required, Mississauga plant can without much of a stretch vehicle it to Montreal since it is just on a 6 hours drive. Additionally, n ormal hourly rate in Montreal plant is less when contrasted with others. In this way, so as to keep away from the negative effect on the rest of the representatives, Stonewall can build the normal hourly rate, which would effectively persuade the current workers.

Thursday, July 9, 2020

Social Stratification - Free Essay Example

Q1A. The question of the inevitability of social stratification is one of the fundamental bases of the theories of Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore. Davis and Moore (1945) argue that as long as there is division of labor in the society, and that there are variability in the roles with varying degrees of importance, stratification will occur. There is a significant difference in the wages of CEO’s and a minimum wage earner because according to the theory, there is a functional necessity of providing different rewards for different positions in the society in accordance to an individual’s abilities. Because not everyone is qualified for specific positions or roles set by the society, there is a need to fill them by making sure that the right people are motivated enough to find ways by which they can fill these certain positions. The theory established by Davis and Moore shows that social stratification, aside from being inevitable, is highly functional in nature. Stratification is an instrument that the society utilizes to attract the right people for the right roles set by the society. The situation regarding the increasing wage gap between the CEO and the minimum wage earners can be explained by the functional needs to get the right people motivated to do to right job through stratification. Q1B. There is empirical evidence showing that women earn significantly less than men. Davis and Moore would probably look at this situation emphasizing that gender is a central aspect in the social stratification. It is functional in a sense that men are physically more competent than women, and therefore giving them more incentives to perform these positions would result to the improvement of productivity. Society has set different roles for different genders and usually, the roles that are assigned to women are those that would allow them in work inside the house taking care of children for instance. Though this may also be considered as a full time job, there is no monetary equivalence to this kind of occupation. In contrast to this, men are expected to earn the income for their family to continue subsistence. The main function of inequality is due to the very fact that not all roles in the society have the same extent of difficulty. Because there is a societal notion that the responsibility assigned to men and women are not the same, social stratification according to gender exists, hence the difference in wage rates. Q2A Melvin Tulmin made a response to the theory created by Davis and Moore. He claims that there are several loopholes that the functional theories of Davis and Moore were not able to address, such defining the term â€Å"functionally important†. The situation involving the wage gap between the CEO and the minimum wage earner can be explained by Tulmin’s criticism to the theories of the previous sociologists. For Tulmin, the system of social stratification does not function as the motivating force to attract the right people to the right positions but to force the acceptance of ideologies that govern the society. The increasing gap between the earnings of the CEO and the minimum wage earners can be explained by the fact that there is indeed an existing barrier between the two types of people mentioned above. This would lead the society to accept the ideology that the former is indeed superior as compared to the latter. Social stratification systems functions to maintain the status quo in the society. Because of the existing social stratification, a large segment of the society are not even given the opportunity to undergo the training so the selective function of social stratification systems as argued by Davis and Moore is defeated. Q2B In the points of criticism of Tulmin out against the functional theory of Davis and Moore, it was highlighted that systems of social stratification has the function to regulate the discovery of the full potential of talents available in the society. In this case, we can say that the women are not given enough opportunities as compared to their male counterparts because of the limited resources that are provided to them, which would lead the society to accept the ideology that women are certainly inferior to men. Social stratification systems serve as a tool to distribute positive self images of individual in the certain category concerned. The wage gap between male and female could be explained by Tulmin’s thesis that â€Å"Social stratification systems function to provide the elite with the political power necessary to procure acceptance and dominance of an ideology which rationalizes the status quo, whatever it may be, as logical, natural and morally right. (Tulmin, 1953) This means that there is a prevailing status quo that has to be preserved in order for the society to function according to preference of the dominant stratum, which in this case is the male. Q3A Karl Marx is one of the most influential political thinkers of the nineteenth century, who claimed that exploitation is an inherent characteristic of the capitalist system. If he were to look at the situation involving the CEO and the minimum wage earners, he would probably conclude that this phenomenon is brought about b y the capitalist society prevailing the United States. He would associate the CEO to the â€Å"bourgeoisie,† the class who own the means of production, while the minimum wage earners are the â€Å"proletariat† the group of individuals who sell their labor but do not possess the means of production. In a capitalist system, profit is earned by paying the workers less than the full value of their output. The identity of each social class is a function of their contribution to the means of production. In each social class, there exists an ideology and consciousness among the members of the society that is shaped by the material conditions and their relationship to the means of production. Using Karl Marx’s theory, we can conclude that this situation is an effect of the capitalist system. Q3B The difference in the wage earned by male and female represents a power relation between the genders favoring the former. Women are oppressed in the society due to the notion of private property which then leads to economic inequality, and ultimately social relations between the two genders. The capitalist system prevails in a patriarchal society. According to a socialist Azizah Al-Hibri, capitalism is an advanced form of patriarchy. Roberts, 1998) In this Marxist-Feminist point of view, we can conclude that the significant difference between the wages of men and women is a tool for the patriarchal society to stay in power, since social classes is ultimately defined by its material conditions. Gender inequality exists because it serves the interest of the capital or the ruling class. Reference List Rhonda F. Levine, ed. (1998) Social Class and Stratification: Classical Stat ements and Theoretical Debates. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Roberts, Carey. (1998) Karl Marx and the Gender Wage Gap. Retrieved June 21, 2008 from iFeminist. com. Available online at:

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Masters Of Education Program Reflection - 957 Words

Masters of Education Program Reflection When I decided to further my education, I was not fully aware of the direction I wanted to go in. The school I would choose to study, the degree I would seek were all still vague. After weeks of research I made a decision to pursue a Master’s of Education in Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment at Walden University. From my research, it was made clear that a degree in curriculum, instruction and assessment would position me to become a positive change agent within my classroom. Walden University has equipped me with the knowledge needed to creating an effective and efficiently run enhanced learning environment for my students where the content is related to their lives, authentic assessments are used to promote higher level thinking while solving real world problems, and where the classroom community allows for student voices to be hear. I have always leaned more towards a constructivist view of learning. Students should be in a classroom where they are not just sitting and listening but doing and constructing their own knowledge. This provides a platform for them to become intrinsically motivated in the learning process because they are actively involved. However, I did not understand how to effectively make that happen. As a new teacher, I followed in the footsteps of my assigned â€Å"mentors†, using their lessons and activities, simply trying to keep my head above water. During my fourth year of teaching, I committed to a planShow MoreRelatedBecoming a Certified Teacher in Missouri890 Words   |  4 PagesMissouri †¢ My Teaching Background o Master of Education in Early Childhood Education at Grand Canyon University o Currently enrolled o Expected graduation: December 2015 †¢ First step: Earning Your Degree o Minimum requirement for certification is a Bachelor’s degree in the Program of Study o Ex. Early Childhood Education o Must be from accredited, state approved education program accepted by the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) †¢ †¢ SecondRead MoreGovernment and Nursing Organization Influencing Nursing Education Comparison of Poland and China696 Words   |  3 Pages. In 1961, Beijing Second Medical College established a department of nursing to enroll working nurses for further education (Chen, 1996; Yu, Xu Zhang, 2000). Government and Nursing Organizations Influencing Nursing Education: Comparison of Poland and China Poland In Poland, various organizations have influenced the nurse education and training. In 1925, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) accepted the establishment and membership of the Polish Nursing Association of Professional NursesRead MoreBook Review - Managers Not Mbas a Hard Look at the Sodt Practice of Management by Henry Mintzberg1651 Words   |  7 Pagespractice of management can only be learned by the action-reflection model. Management is the practice of getting the right things done, individually and collectively, and learning happens not just by doing but by being able to gain conceptual understanding while doing it. Management competence, as a practice rather than a profession, cannot be taught in the abstract, but is best learned in context through a combination of action and reflection. In management, a so called â€Å"layperson† with relevant skillsRead MoreThe Maternal And Child Health Bureau Strategic Plan873 Words   |  4 Pagessupport scholarship within the field by proving graduate education to develop interdisciplinary public health leaders nationwide. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau invested in innovative training and education programs to produce more qualified leaders according to a set of guidelines on the national level (Dodds, et al., 2010). To stay up to date in the field there must be an advancement of the methods of successful training programs in regards to key stakeholders. An example of this type ofRead MoreI Am A ----Year Old Christian Woman. I Come From Pakistan1256 Words   |  6 PagesI am a ----year old Christian woman. I come from Pakistan and am currently working on my Master of Divinity program at Garrett- Evangelical Theological Seminary, Evanston, IL. I am looking forward to graduating on May 12, 2017. 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This transition from hospital to schools is creditedRead MoreI Am A Student In The Master Of Divinity Program At Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary,1325 Words   |  6 PagesI am a student in the Master of Divinity program at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary, anticipating graduation in May 2017. The Master of Divinity program has broadened my whole understanding of the Church and God, and has established a desire to further explore theology in the academy. Therefore, I am applying to the Master of Theological Studies program, with a desire to focus on Theology and Ethics. I am seeking admission into this program to further my growth as a scholar and researcherRead MoreMy Career As A Teacher898 Words   |  4 Pagestaught fourth and second grade. While working at the Aptos Academy, I attended California State University Monterey Bay, where I received my Bachelor of Arts degree in Liberal Studies and completed a Multiple Subject Preparation Program. Following this, I received my Masters of Arts degree in Curriculum and Instruction through the University of Saint Mary in Leavensworth, Kansas. After twelve years of teaching at the Aptos Academy, I moved to Maui, Hawaii where I taught sixth grade for two years atRead MoreNotes On Teaching And Learning Methods Essay1062 Words   |  5 PagesEssay Structure Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by Doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford: Further Education Unit. My Outline 1. Description: What happened? a. What: Hardship in the beginning of the study in New Zealand i. Hardly understand the lessons from the first day. Since most the background knowledge such as mathematics were required to be revised. ii. Tried to read books and still hardly understand most of the lesson iii. Courses started to be very challenging and informationRead MoreHistory And Development Of Nursing Education1691 Words   |  7 Pages Comparing Nursing Education in Ireland and China Lakeisha Alexander Florida International University Introduction The countries that I have chosen to research are Ireland and China. I chose Ireland because while I was in high school there was an opportunity to study abroad in the country; I was unable to participate in the program but was curious about what receiving an education there would be like. My opinion of nursing education in Ireland is that it’s

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Lord Of The Flies - Role Of Gender Essay - 892 Words

What was it that caused the aggression and dominance exhibited by the boys of Lord of the Flies? Was it some metaphysical, spiritual force, or perhaps their genetic makeup? Could it have been the influence of their peers or families, or was it the media that inspired this dangerous pattern? Conceivably, their gender had something to do with this appalling trait. It all begs the question, would the same experiences have occurred had females been stranded on the island instead of males? Had females been in a similar situation as the boys in Lord of the Flies, they would have fared abundantly better. Initially, this paper will address society’s role in encouraging males’ violent behavior, as well as females’ politeness and passivity.†¦show more content†¦With the influences of society’s stereotyping, girls would generally more nurturing and caring towards group members. A lot of males’ violent behavior and females’ complaisance can be accredited to family and institutional socialization. Parents usually raise boys on aggressive sports, such as hockey and football, which encourage violence. Girls, however, are generally brought up on quot;femininequot; activities, dance and figure skating to name a few, which promote a gentle, polite nature. It is the rare parent that heeds their four-year-old son’s aspiration to be a ballet dancer by purchasing the child a pair of tights and a leotard. When a boy shows more interest in dolls than in trucks, his family may be distressed, and provoke him to reveal his quot;masculinequot; side. After striving for egalitarianism between the sexes for so many years, families still deter young girls from pursuits of hockey stardom, hoping to interest them in Pointe shoes. Displays of emotion by boys are often criticized for being quot;unmasculinequot;, whereas emotional behavior in girls tends to be e xpected and accepted. As a result, boys tend to not only hide their feelings, but criticize friends for showing their emotions. Girls, on the other hand, encourage one another to express feelings and console one another naturally. Research shows that boys and girls have different means of reachingShow MoreRelatedThe Lord of the Flies by William Golding776 Words   |  3 PagesThe novel Lord of the Flies presents the themes of evil and sin as an innate, inevitable and negative feature throughout the novel, similar to the play The Crucible. William Golding uses Lord of the Flies as an allegory to present evil and sin through different symbols within the novel, with boys being trapped on an island. Arthur Miller presents evil and sin through a contextual, Puritan society within various characters. Even though both writers present these themes, Golding presents it in theRead MoreLord Of The Flies By William Golding1724 Words   |  7 PagesLord of the â€Å"Guys†: A Feminist Reading of Lord of the Flies CRASH! A plane crashes full of people near an island. The plane is full of grown-ups and children ¾young boys to be exact. Surprisingly, all the grown-ups die and only the young boys survive and discover themselves on an island, in a jungle. Their survival lies only in their young, inexperienced hands. The boys form a society, an all male society. No need for girls right? WRONG! Many might think that a feminist critic would have little ifRead MoreAnalysis Of Lord Of The Flies And Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1208 Words   |  5 Pagesit. The novels, Lord of The Flies by William Golding and The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins, demonstrate this prospect as through the narrative techniques of characterisation, plot, setting and style, they exemplify the moral decline of man under pressure to survive, ultimately resulting in savagery. Characterisation plays a major role in both texts as each character serves as a representation humanity and the faults within it. Throughout Lord of the Flies there is a developingRead MoreLord Of The Flies By William Golding1466 Words   |  6 PagesLord of the Flies is a very interesting novel about young boys who are stranded on an island. William Golding conducts the ultimate thought of experimenting human nature. When he places the group of boys on a deserted island, Golding wants to find the defects of human nature at the root. However, his experiment lacks control, because the boys have already been raised in the Western culture. Their temptations for war and destruction are because of the events that surrounded them in their earlyRead MoreLord Of The Flies : Representation Of Violence And War1611 Words   |  7 PagesLord Of The Flies: Representation Of Violence and War Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a German theologian, states that â€Å" The ultimate test of a moral society is the kind of world that it leaves to its children.† In William Golding’s Lord Of The Flies, societal topics run rampant throughout the text with Golding’s use of individuals to represent different aspects of society. Many writers view the Lord Of The Flies as an allegory, as societal topics such as politics make appearances throughout the text. InRead MoreLord of The Flies Essay1673 Words   |  7 PagesLord of the Flies was published in 1954 by William Golding. Today Lord of the Flies is a well known literary criticism. Many schools require their students to read Lord of the Flies because of the literary criticisms in the book. In this paper three themes or literary criticisms are talked about: good vs. evil, symbolism of characters, and maturity of characters. Another topic in Goldings Lord of the Flies is the battle of good vs. evil. Everything seems to start out just fine on the island; theRead MoreSummary Of Lord Of The Flies 1541 Words   |  7 PagesKevin Luu AP Lit-B3 Ms.Anders Summer Novel Reading Questions 1.Golding,William. Lord of the Flies. Faber and Faber,1954 2.The title Lord of the Flies is referring to Beelzebub which is another name for the devil. This title is fitting for the story because typically flies surround something that is filthy or dirty,and in the story the boys on the island progressively become more dirty as the story progresses which reflects the innate evil that is in all of them. 3.The boys who are marooned onRead More Gender Roles in Romeo and Juliet, by William Shakespeare Essay857 Words   |  4 PagesShakespeare, there is an overlaying presence of the typical roles that men and women were supposed to play. During Elizabethan times there was a major difference between the way men and women were supposed to act. Men typically were supposed to be masculine and powerful, and defend the honor. Women, on the other hand, were supposed to be subservient to their men in their lives and do as ever they wished. In Romeo and Juliet the typical gender roles that men and women were supposed to play had an influenceRead MoreCompare And Contrast The Long Queen And The Map Women1250 Words   |  5 Pagesto the failure or the absence of relationships that is both physical and mental suffering from desolation. In the first stanza Duffy uses the technique of asyndetic listing of all the potential suitors that the monarch could have married like the lord, the baronet, the c ount, instead she has accepted Time for a husband. Duffy personifies Time as she gives it a capital letter resembling a name, it also embodies how the queen left it too late to marry, instead married her people and gave up seekingRead MoreThe Long Queen And The Map Women By Carol Ann Duffy1254 Words   |  6 Pagesto the failure or the absence of relationships that is both physical and mental suffering from desolation. In the first stanza Duffy uses the technique of asyndetic listing of all the potential suitors that the monarch could have married like the lord, the baronet, the count, instead she has accepted Time for a husband. Duffy personifies Time as she gives it a capital letter resembling a name, it also embodies how the queen left it too late to marry, instead married her people and gave up seeking

Last Game of the Year free essay sample

The last game of the regular football season we played for a state playoff berth against our cross town rivals, the chieftains. The opening play from scrimmage, the chieftains rushed for a 69 yard touchdown and the following possession they rushed for another touchdown. Before we blinked the score was 14 to zero and by the time we got to the locker room for half time the score was 19-0. The second quarter didnt bring any better outcome. The end of the third quarter a player from our team got hurt and had to be taken to the hospital on a stretcher. During the time we were taking a knee to show respect for the injured player the chieftians did not take a knee. The chieftains should have shown some respect and taken a knee. In front of a standing room only crowd of 3,000 the town showed their true colors with the lack of respect for each team, they should have booed the chieftians for not taking a knee. We will write a custom essay sample on Last Game of the Year or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Even though we live in the same town and played in the same youth league even on the same team in some cases. I would assume that would be more respect for each other. In the middle in the fourth quarter as the rival running back was run out of bounds players on the bench starting to make comments at our players. A player on the their sideline was making comments at our middle linebacker; he was calling him a pussy and other things. One our linebacker would have destoyed this kid in a fight and on top of that he played the last 7 games of the season with a torn meniscus, so he definitely is not a pussy. I felt that again that the true colors of the town were shown, even though embarrassing us at home wasn’t enough of a victory for them. Talking trash when being up 41-0 seems very juvenile and downright disrespectful not only are you winning big but talking trash just adds insult to injury. Again this shows how strong the rivalry between the schools actually is. I thought that it was friendly rivalry between cross town rivals not a: we have no respect for the other team rivalry. Its not like were playing against a team from a different town who we dont know who the players are, we are playing against kids who live in the same town as us. There should be more respect between the players of the team.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Understanding the Linkage between Aggression Personality Disorders A Critical Analysis

Introduction Extant epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently demonstrate that aggression is a developmentally salient behavior, which is mostly triggered by situational factors such as the presence of violent cues, parental conflict and divorce, poverty, provocation, and the quality of parent-child relations (Bettencourt et al. 751).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Understanding the Linkage between Aggression Personality Disorders: A Critical Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another strand of existing literature (e.g., Daffern et al. 430; Fossati et al. 24; Latalova Praske 239) demonstrates that aggression, in its form and scope, is a widespread symptom in a number of disorders and syndromes of psychiatric concern, particularly maladaptive personal functioning and personality disorder. However, there still remains a dearth in literature with regard to the particular correlate s of aggression that are exhibited in people with personality disorders, and if aggressive behavior is a precondition of personality disorder. Through a critical analysis of several personality disorders classified under the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition), such as borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, this paper aims to demonstrate that aggression against self or against others is a core component of personality disorders. Understanding Aggression Personality Disorder Considerable research conducted over several decades has attempted to investigate the reasons for exhibiting aggressive behavior in patients suffering from personality disorders (Daffern et al. 426), but no conclusive results seem forthcoming in a number of fronts, in large part due to the problems encountered in categorizing personalit y disorders (Nelson-Gray et al. 12). In other fronts, however, studies have been conclusive on the relationship between aggression and personality disorders, and the influence that aggressive behavior impacts on personality disorders and vise-versa (Reidy et al. 415). Many academics and practitioners believe that aggressive behavioral orientation on the part of individuals with personality disorders stands in the way of attaining effective treatment and management of these disorders (Nouvion et al. 554) and, as such, it is of essence to come up with strategies and modalities for purposeful intervention with regard to eliminating or reducing aggression in this group of the population. The following section aims to seek a better understanding of the concept of aggression within the broader context of personality disorders.Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aggression Aggre ssion literature continues to elicit increased attention from academics and practitioners, primarily because of the many negative consequences associated with the concept in the broad fields of psychology and psychiatry. Aggression has been described as â€Å"†¦overt behavior involving intent to inflict noxious stimulation or to behave destructively towards another organism or object† (Latalova Prasko 240). Aggression, according to these particular authors, is different from anger, which is perceived as an emotional state that fluctuates from mild irritation to passionate range and is a common precursor to overt aggressive behavior. The variations notwithstanding, there exists compelling evidence to the fact that aggressive behaviors embody significant challenges to the successful integration into society of individuals with personality disorders and other psychiatric disorders, not mentioning that an aggressive orientation presents significant management issues for car e providers (Crocker et al. 652). Some paradigms to studying aggression divide aggressive behavior into discrete subtypes depending upon the scope and the context of the aspects concerned. Although the nomenclature of these subtypes often varies, research demonstrates that some individuals exhibit more than one subtype of aggression (Nouvion et al. 552) and that associations often exist among the various subtypes of aggression (Reidy et al. 415). Overall, an aggressive orientation exhibited by an individual may distinctively be described as being reactive or proactive. A meta-analytic review of psychology and psychiatric literature (e.g., Nouvion 552; Reidy et al. 416; Latalova Praske 240) demonstrates that reactive aggressive behavior occurs in response to aggravations or threats, or discernments of threats, while proactive aggressive behavior is deliberate, planned and goal-oriented. Consequently, while reactive aggressive behavior tends to be emotional, impulsive, hostile and pe rpetuated with high autonomic arousal and minimal behavioral control, proactive aggressive behavior is perpetuated with low autonomic arousal and a high degree of behavioral control. Studies have found that proactive aggressive behavior is closely correlated to personality disorders and other psychiatric disorders than reactive aggressive behavior (Nouvion et al. 553). In one such study cited by these authors, some researchers found that proactive aggression exhibited by 12-year olds premeditated their levels of delinquency, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) by the time the teenagers reached age 15. In yet another study also reported by these authors, researchers found that â€Å"†¦proactive males, compared with reactive males, were more prone to externalizing problems (aggression, unruliness) in childhood and adjustment problems (noncompliance, conduct problems) in adolescence, and that proactive males and females had poorer achievement in school a nd were heavy users of alcohol as adults† (553).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Understanding the Linkage between Aggression Personality Disorders: A Critical Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To drive the point home, another study also cited by the same authors found proactive aggression to be positively correlated with a multiplicity of personality and behavioral disorders, such as antisocial personality disorder and disruptive behavior diagnosis. These findings aptly demonstrate that aggressive behavior is a fundamental component of personality disorders. Consequently, it can be argued that proactive aggression is a uniquely discernible form of aggressive behavior with significant clinical implications for individuals with preexisting condition for personality disorder (Nouvion et al. 553). To provide some more insights into this issue, academics and practitioners have acknowledged th at â€Å"†¦individuals displaying reactive aggression may be differentiated from individuals displaying proactive aggression on measures of personality and psychopathology, as well as in histories of aggression, and type and severity of aggressive behaviors committed† (Fossati et al. 22). However, both proactive and reactive forms of aggression have been noted to either lead to aggression against self or aggression against others (Reidy et al. 415). As noted in psychological literature, the two subsets of violence â€Å"†¦share certain underlying neurobiological mechanisms, but their impact on clinical care, patient’s environment, and legal involvement are different† (Latalova Prasko 239). Unlike aggression against self, which is ultimately viewed as a form of self-injurious behavior, aggression against others not only endangers care providers, family members and other patients, but may also carry legal penalties for the perpetrator (Bowins 155), as w ell as increased risk for victimization in job settings and criminalization (Crocker et al 652). Some researchers argue from the perspective that aggression causes negative ramifications on interpersonal relations, which in turn triggers or aggravates personality disorders in individuals experiencing the noted interpersonal strain (DiGiuseppe et al. 67). In such a scenario, aggressive behavioral orientation, arising from such factors as family discord, couple distress and parent-child conflict, becomes the triggering agent for personality disorder and other behavioral and cognitive impairments, including irrationality, poor judgment, and engaging in risky and erratic behavior.Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Personality Disorders According to traditional diagnostic perspectives embodied in the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision), a personality disorder is described as â€Å"†¦an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has onset in adolescence or early childhood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment† (Nelson-Gray et al 7). Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging, not only for the individuals concerned but also the society, health institutions and caregivers, mainly due to the fact that only a limited number of treatment therapies are supported by research. In terms of prevalence, one study demonstrates that the most common personality disorder is â€Å"†¦the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, followed by passive-aggressive, avoidant, borderline, and h istrionic personality disorder† (Torgersen 626). While these disorders represent a cluster of the most common personality disorders, it is imperative to mention that the rarest personality disorders within the general population include antisocial, schizoid, dependent, and sadistic personality disorders. However, it is essential to note that prevalence rates may vary depending on the geographical context and population (Roberts et al. 225). The following sections aim to look at the inter-linkages between the sampled personality disorders and the prevalence of aggression. The sections will also incorporate findings from an interview with an expert psychiatrist about the perceived relationship between aggression and personality disorders. Aggression and Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) Debate still rages as to what this entity really represents, with some researchers arguing that there is an actual defect in sociopaths while others argue â€Å"†¦that antisocial behav ior is an adaptive trait providing an enhanced ability to acquire recourses through deceit† (Bowins 158). However, the DSM-IV acknowledges that antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is typified by a persistent disrespect for, and infringement on, other people’s rights and freedoms (Reidy et al. 415). The present criteria for ASPD, as elucidated in DSM-IV, encompass a behavioral blueprint that is initiated before age 15, and consist of three of the following behaviors: repeated criminal acts, deceitfulness, impulsiveness, repeated fights or assaults, disregard and disrespect for the security of others, irresponsibility, and lack of remorse (Moeller Dougherty 6). It is imperative to note that ASPD is a comparatively common personality disorder afflicting the general population, with available statistics demonstrating that an estimated 3 percent of men and 1 percent of women successfully meet the DSM-IV criteria for ASPD (Moeller Dougherty 6). Interestingly, the prevale nce of ASPD is much higher in selected populations, such as violent offenders incarcerated in prisons and patients in alcohol or substance abuse treatment programs, suggesting a strong correlation between ASPD and aggressive behavior. Contract killers, who are often extremely aggressive individuals but having the capacity to hide or encapsulate emotions, fall into this category of antisocial individuals (Bowins 159) One study seems to suggest that dysregulated and uncontrollable aggression, may it be proactive or reactive, is a hallmark of ASPD (DiGiuseppe 69). However, another study suggests that â€Å"†¦detachment from, and indifference to, the feelings and welfare of others is a hallmark of this condition† (Bowins 158). The variations notwithstanding, research has demonstrated that individuals presenting with ASPD â€Å"†¦are prone to develop an overt antisocial pathway characterized by an escalation from minor aggressive (e.g., bullying, annoying others) to ser ious violent behaviors (e.g., gang fighting, physical assault)† (DiGiunta et al. 874). Another study demonstrated that individuals â€Å"†¦with histories of behaviors associated with ASPD were more aggressive than were people without such histories† (Moeller Dougherty 7). In yet another study, it was demonstrated that adolescent male parolees exhibiting three or more of mentioned ASPD symptoms exhibited higher aggressive behavior than did adolescent female parolees with no symptoms of ASPD. Based on these sentinel studies, it could be authoritatively argued that there is a positive correlation between ASPD and aggression and that ASPD does, in fact, increase aggressive behavior in humans. The findings, more than anything else, exemplify the fact that individuals who are likely to engage in aggressive behavior are more likely to have an elaborate and readily available personality disorder (Bettencourt et al. 753) An interview with a psychiatrist in a local counseli ng center for individuals exhibiting disordered behavior demonstrated that it is often difficult to treat clients with a personality disorder, primarily because such individuals may not necessarily display insight that their behaviors deviate from societal norms. As a matter of fact, the psychiatrist confided in me that an individual presenting with ASPD might not be conscious of the fact that others within the social setup regard his behavior as excessively calculating and self-serving; rather, he may view his behavior as an absolutely normal attempt to get ahead of his peers. It, therefore, becomes extremely important for caregivers to look into other possessive behavioral orientations, such as heightened aggression, to make a correct diagnosis of ASPD and other personality disorders (Nouvion et al. 560). Aggression and Borderline Personality Disorder Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is included within Cluster B (erratic-emotional-dramatic) of Axis II personality disorders an d is typified by the DSM-IV-TR â€Å"†¦as a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity that begins by early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts† (Nelson-Gray et al 26). BPD is typified by volatility and dysfunction in affective, behavioral, and interpersonal spheres of the individual, leading to impulsive and self-destructive behaviors in the event of the individual reaching extreme affective instability. These episodes are typically succinct and reactive and entail intense fluctuations between angry and depressed states (Reidy et al. 417). Available literature demonstrates that â€Å"†¦patients with borderline personality disorder, mainly with impulsive-behavioral dyscontrol symptoms, exhibit impulsive aggression, self-mutilation, or self-damaging behavior (e.g., promiscuous sex, substance abuse, reckless spending)† (Latalova Prasko 239). Another strand of existing literatur e demonstrates that individuals with BPD exhibit â€Å"†¦emotional/affective dysregulation (e.g., labile mood, anger, negative affect), interpersonal difficulties (e.g., sensitivity to perceived threats of abandonment or rejections), impulsivity (e.g., self-injury or sexual promiscuity), and cognitive dysregulation (e.g., dissociation in responses to stress, unstable self-image)† (Nelson-Gray et al 27). Interestingly, nearly all of these behavioral orientations are positively correlated with aggression (Daffern et al. 427), implying that aggression may be an innate constituent of BPD. Extant research demonstrates that BPD has high comorbidity with substance use and alcohol disorders, Bipolar Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder, implying that patients suffering from BPD are at elevated risk of demonstrating violent or aggressive behavior (Latalova Prasko 239). In yet another study, it was reported that â€Å"†¦women with borderline personality disorder de monstrated more aggressive responses than did women without the disorder† (Moeller Dougherty 8). To reinforce this perspective, another study found that a self-report of BPD aspects in middle childhood was distinctively linked to instructor-reported relational aggression (aggression displayed to damage or destroy relationships) even after controlling other extraneous variables such as physical aggression and depressive symptomatology (Reidy et al. 415). Moving on, psychological and psychiatric literature has proved that patients with BPD are also known to present with manifold problems in a therapeutic setting, such as placid forms of therapy interfering behavior to violent suicidal gestures and aggressive episodes (Nelson-Gray et al. 30). Consequently, these research findings related to BPD and aggression demonstrate that aggressive behavior is indeed a central component of personality disorder. More important, these findings underscore the fact that particular personality c haracteristics appear to envisage divergent patterns of aggressive behavior (Bettencourt et al. 751). These views are consistent with Anderson and Bushman’s (2002) general aggression model, which posits that certain character traits predispose individuals to high levels of aggressive behavior (Bettencourt et al. 753). Aggression Narcissism A growing body of literature demonstrates that narcissism is innately and positively correlated with aggression and hostility, with studies revealing that highly narcissistic individuals might be particularly sensitive to experiencing â€Å"slights† from others and that high narcissism is often expressed with high aggressive behavior when there is an inherent ego threat (DiGiuseppe 69). One study reports that â€Å"†¦narcissists have an inflated sense of self-worth and self-love without a strong set of beliefs that support this sense of superiority† (Bettencourt et al. 758). By virtue of the fact that this group of the p opulation experiences unbalanced self-esteem, they are exceptionally sensitive to personal slights, such as insult and positive censure. Consequently, narcissistic individuals tend to exhibit aggressive behavior in ego-threatening situations, primarily because of their perceived culpability to threats to the self-concept. Indeed, a number of researchers have acknowledged that factors that contain or control aggression in the general population seem to be totally absent or are deficient in narcissist individuals (Bettencourt et al. 758). Moving on, several psychological and psychiatric-oriented studies have demonstrated â€Å"†¦that narcissism predicts aggressive behavior in situations involving provocation† (Bettencourt et al. 758). This finding is particularly important to the cause of the present paper as it implies that narcissism and the level of provocation positively interact to influence aggressive behavior. The psychiatrist interviewee supported this line of thou ght when he admitted that narcissist individuals often become angry, irritated and exceedingly impatient when confronted with a challenge that seems to challenge their self-worth and self-concept as they perceive such challenges as actual provocations to their capabilities. Indeed, the psychiatrist confided in me that individuals are exhibiting narcissistic orientations and challenging to treat due to their misrepresentation of facts and experiences. This view has been corroborated in the literature, with one study noting that individuals presenting with narcissism are the most difficult to treat as any comment that these individuals may misinterpret as a personal slight generates the so-called narcissistic injury, activating intense aggressive behavior and frequently, a failure to progress with therapy (Bowins 157). In yet another study, â€Å"†¦overt narcissism has been linked to aggression in response to an external threat to one’s self-esteem† (Fossati et al. 21). Extending these finding, a study conducted by Barry et al. (2007) cited by these authors demonstrated that in moderately to extremely aggressive children, overt narcissistic predisposition appeared to forecast both proactive (i.e., unprovoked, goal-setting) and reactive types of aggression. This is an important finding which sets the stage for the exposition of the fact that aggression is indeed a central component of personality disorders as it implies that narcissists can indeed perpetuate unprovoked aggression. It is imperative to note that this finding underlines the commonly accepted assertion that individuals presenting with narcissists predispositions are only reactively aggressive (Reidy et al. 415). Indeed, other studies have found that narcissist individuals are not prone to displaced aggression irrespective of provocation (Reidy et al. 419). Aggression Avoidant Personality Disorder Avoidant personality disorder is incorporated within Cluster C (fearful-anxious) regi men of the Axis II personality disorders and is typified by the DSM-IV-TR â€Å"†¦as a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, beginning by early childhood and present in a variety of contexts† (Nelson-Gray et al 31). A growing body of literature assumes the position that avoidant personality disorder cannot in any meaningful be differentiated from social phobia due to the huge amount of symptom overlap and recurrent co-occurrence of social phobia and avoidant personality disorder (Nelson-Gray et al 31). However, these particular authors acknowledge that clients with avoidant personality disorder are often expected â€Å"†¦to present with other Axis I anxiety disorders, other personality disorders (especially dependent personality disorder), and mood disorders† (31). It is important to note that individuals suffering from avoidant personality disorder often mostly present to therapists or to the psychiatric counselors as cautious, detached, distrustful and potentially aggressive, primarily due to their extreme and often unfounded fears of receiving negative evaluation and hypersensitivity to criticism (Nelson-Gray et al. 33). This view is reinforced by the interviewee, who suggested that he had experienced instances when clients turn aggressive when confronted with the reality of receiving a negative evaluation in a clinical or therapy setting. Apart from the aggressive confrontations, the psychiatrist confided in me that groups of the population presenting with avoidant personality disorder are more likely to engage in cancellation of appointments at the last minute, shifting from one therapist to the other, coming late for therapy sessions, and failing to do homework, ostensibly because of their fears to receive negative evaluation as well as their hypersensitivity to criticism. Aggression Schizoid Personality Disorder Extant literature demonstrates that individuals exhibiting Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD) â€Å"†¦lead very limited lives and demonstrate some degree of psychosis when under significant stress, thus reinforcing the perspective that it is a variant of schizophrenia† (Bowins 163). This particular author contends that individuals with this type of disorder extend isolation to the extreme, not mentioning that they exhibit the tendency to over-apply the juvenile classical defense of schizoid fantasy. The criteria for schizoid personality disorder under the DSM-IV diagnostic tool include a pervasive pattern of detachment from social and interpersonal relationships, as well as limited range of expression of emotions and other feelings in interpersonal settings, initiating in early adulthood and presenting in a multiplicity of contexts. In particular, individuals with schizoid personality disorder must present four or more of the following symptoms: neither desires nor takes pride in forming close interpersonal relation ships, including being part of a family; take pride in choosing and fulfilling solitary responsibilities and activities; exhibit little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another individual; derives pleasure in few, if any, activities; lack close friends or confidants other than their immediate relatives; appear unresponsive to the praise or criticism of others, and; exhibit emotional coldness, detachment, or compressed affectivity (Parpottas 46). It is imperative to note that schizoid personality disorder â€Å"†¦does not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia, a mood disorder with psychotic features, another psychotic disorder, or a pervasive developmental disorder, and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition† (Parpottas 46). The description notwithstanding, numbers of researchers and practitioners believe that a relationship exists between this group of the population and aggressive and violent behav ior (Loza Hanna 340). However, other researchers believe that there exists a paucity of research on the association between schizoid personality disorder and aggressive behavior, although a positive correlation seems highly probable (Loza Hanna 340). Indeed, a number of symptoms associated with the syndrome, such as lack of interpersonal and social ties, detachment and unresponsiveness, have been positively correlated with aggressive behavior in past studies (Bowins 165). Hypochondriac, introverted, solitariness, and aloofness, according to available literature, are traits that either enhance or triggers aggressive behavior in individual with personality disorder (Loza Hanna 341). It, therefore, follows that people suffering from a schizoid personality disorder may indeed demonstrate aggression against self or others by virtue of the fact that they exhibit symptoms that have long being known to increase incidences of aggression. However, as noted by Parpottas, conclusive findings are yet to be attained in this area. Aggression Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder In the psychological and psychiatric literature, obsession-compulsion is usually perceived as a set of personality characteristics that would not naturally be as extreme as to constitute a personality disorder; however, a disorder materializes when characteristics or behaviors become rigid, maladaptive, and occasion impaired functioning or subjective distress (Mudrack 491; Torres et al. 863). This view is premised on the view that many individuals undeniably possess varying levels of obsessive-compulsive characteristics without necessarily being impaired or prejudiced by these traits. As a matter of fact, obsessions and compulsions are evidently perceived as constituents of the regular repertoire of human behavior. In their extreme form, however, obsessions and compulsions have caused inflexibility, extreme skepticism, a damaging â€Å"†¦superego (believing that one is more ethical than others, suspicious of pleasure, guided by conscience, and conscientious, dependable, and reliable), and perseverance (suggesting a pattern of dogged persistence, hard work, and tenacity† (Mudrack 491). In job-related context, a manager exhibiting this type of personality disorder may become extremely ‘bossy’, always reprimanding employees for not realizing often unachievable or untenable objectives (Torres et al. 864). Cases abound of teachers who beat their students for not dressing to their expectations, or for not attaining marks that the teachers consider as satisfactory. The psychiatrist interviewee confided in me that such projection of aggressiveness on the part of teachers might be as a direct consequence of Obsessive-compulsive disorder, though such teachers may never be aware that they are suffering from the disorder. Through the beatings, the teachers may engage in self-harm behavior (e.g., losing their jobs for going against the set rules and regulati ons) or may internalize a predisposition to harm others (e.g., physically injuring the students). Both ways, it can be argued that aggressiveness – either proactive or reactive – is a critical component of personality disorders. Conclusion From this critical discussion and analysis, there is compelling evidence to suggest that aggression is a fundamental component in many of the personality disorder classified under the DSM-IV and its successor – the DSM-IV-TR – diagnostic manuals. It has been found that, with the exception of schizoid personality disorder, aggression is deeply entrenched in behavioral orientations of individuals with personality disorders discussed in this paper, which include antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, narcissism, avoidant personality disorder, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Opinion still remains on whether aggression forms a critical constituent of schizoid personality disorder (Lo za Hanna 340), but there is a strong indication that the symptoms associated with this condition are known to trigger or aggravate aggressive behavior. This analysis provides important implications for clinical, psychological and psychiatric practice by virtue of the fact that practitioners and therapists can develop a centralized treatment strategy aimed at reducing aggressive orientations in the treatment and management of the discussed personality disorders. By treating aggression in this group of the population, doctors and therapists will stand a better position not only to assist the individuals concerned reinforce their cognitive and emotional faculties towards full recovery, but also ensure that these individuals do not present a threat, either to themselves or to other members of society. What’s more, the analysis shed’s light on a number of issues that could inarguably assist society in the handling and understanding of individuals with the discussed persona lity disorders, particularly in terms of handling their aggressive predispositions. However, further research is needed to be able to separate the particular correlates of aggression in individuals with personality disorder and how such correlates could be addressed to reduce disorder burden. Works Cited Bettencourt, B. 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